Murphy, Walter F. "What If Peter Had Been Pope During World War II?"
Divergence: 1943 CE
What if: God re-ran history, giving Pope Pius XII St. Peter's moral character.
Comments: The October 1943 roundup of Roman Jews leads the Pope to criticize the Third Reich and Great Britain, and in response the Nazis attack the Vatican.
Published: In What If? Explorations in Social-Science Fiction (ed. Nelson W. Polsby), q.v.