Turtledove, Harry. A Different Flesh
Divergence: c 5,000,000 BCE
What if: European explorers discovered Pithecanthropan "sims" instead of red-skinned men when they reached the New World.
Series note: Collection of stories all in the same timeline. In order the stories are "Vilest Beast", "And So to Bed", "Around the Salt Lick", "The Iron Elephant", "Though the Heavens Fall", "Trapping Run", and "Freedom". All except for "Trapping Run" were previously published.
Published: Congdon & Weed 1988 (0865531986BUY), Worldwide 1989 (0373303092), and Baen 1994 (0671876228).

Turtledove, Harry. "Vilest Beast"
Divergence: c 5,000,000 BCE
Summary: In 1610, sims steal a babe from a Jamestown cradle and her father ventures into the wilderness to save her.
Published: In Analog, September 1985; and A Different Flesh, q.v.

Turtledove, Harry. "And So to Bed"
Divergence: c 5,000,000 BCE
Summary: In 1661, Samuel Pepys purchases two sims to help out around the house and contemplates the origins of species.
Published: In Analog, January 1986; Terry Carr's Best Science Fiction and Fantasy of the Year (ed. Terry Carr), Tor 1987 (0312930259BUY); The Year's Best Science Fiction, Fourth Annual Collection (ed. Gardner Dozois), St. Martin's 1987 (0312007108BUY, 0312007094), v.t. The Mammoth Book of Best New SF, Robinson 1987 (094816431X); A Different Flesh, q.v.; Kaleidoscope, Ballantine/Del Rey 1990 (0345364775BUY); and 3×T, Baen 2004 (0743488350BUY).

Turtledove, Harry. "Around the Salt Lick"
Divergence: c 5,000,000 BCE
Summary: In 1691, a Virginia hunter is captured by wild sims and hopes that his sim assistant will think of rescuing him.
Published: In Analog, February 1986 and A Different Flesh, q.v.

Turtledove, Harry. "The Iron Elephant"
Divergence: c 5,000,000 BCE
Summary: In 1782, steam-driven trains first appear, and a race is held with one of the mammoth-pulled trains they threaten to replace.
Published: In Analog, May 1986 and A Different Flesh, q.v.

Turtledove, Harry. "Though the Heavens Fall"
Divergence: c 5,000,000 BCE
Summary: In 1804, a lawyer uses the existence of sims to argue that a runaway Negro slave should not be returned to his one-time owner.
Published: In Analog, September 1986; and A Different Flesh, q.v.

Turtledove, Harry. "Trapping Run"
Divergence: c 5,000,000 BCE
Summary: In 1812, a trapper in the Rockies is wounded by a bear and is nursed back to health by sims.
Published: In A Different Flesh, q.v.
Original in: English.
Translation: German by Ingrid Hermann as "Winterlager", in Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazin #34 (1989).

Turtledove, Harry. "Freedom"
Divergence: c 5,000,000 BCE
Summary: In 1988, university students opposed to medical experiments on sims kidnap a sim carrying AIDS but do not take enough of the new HIV inhibitor.
Published: In Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine, March 1988 and A Different Flesh, q.v.